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Optometry Subject Guide: Citation Help

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Different Ways of Citing

AMA (JAMA) Style

AMA is the citation style created by the American Medical Association. AMA is also referred to as JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association), and is the same style as AMA.

The following are selected examples of how to cite using AMA style. If you cannot find an example that's for the type of publication you would like to cite, consult the AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors, 11e.



NLM Style

The following are selected examples of how to cite using NLM style. If you cannot find an example that's for the type of publication you would lke to cite, consult the Citing Medicine, The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers 2nd ed.

General NLM Rules

Journal Articles



General NLM Rules

  • NLM style does not recommend a particular style of in-text citations. Three styles are mentioned (see below). Check with your instructor/editor or guidelines to see which is most appropriate for your project. Remember to be consistent with the in-text citation style you choose.

    • Citation-Sequence: Items are cited using a superscript number1. Items are placed in the reference list in the order of appearance in the text

    • Citation-Name: Items are cited using a superscript number1. The superscript number refers to items in the reference list that are listed alphabetically by author’s last name, then year of publication

    • Name-Year: Items are cited in a parenthetical statement including author last name and publication year (Author, Year). Items are placed in the reference list alphabetically by author’s last name, then year of publication

  • List names in the order they appear in the text.

  • Enter surname (family or last name) first for each author.

  • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document cited on the assumption that the author approved the form used. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.

  • Convert given (first) names and middle names to initials, for a maximum of two initials following each surname.

  • Give all authors, regardless of the number.

  • End author information with a period.

  • Different reference formats (book vs journal vs website) have different rules for citation. See below for some common format examples.

Journal Articles

  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms.

  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless some other form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present

  • The titles of journals should be abbreviated. To determine the abbreviation of the journal title, search for the journal in the NLM Catalog.

  • For online articles place Internet in square brackets and end with a period.

Journal Citation Formats

  • Print: Author of article AA. Title of Article. Abbreviated Title of Journal. Date of Publication;Volume(Issue): Page Number(s).

  • Online: Author of article AA, Author of article BB, Author of article CC. Title of article. Abbreviated Title of Journal [Type of Medium]. Date of Publication [Date of Citation];Volume (Issue): Page Number(s). Available from: URL.

  • DatabaseAuthor of article AA, Author of article BB. Title of article. Abbreviated Title of Journal. Date of Publication [Date of Citation]; Volume(Issue): Page Number(s). In: Name of Database [Type of Medium]. Place of Publication:Publisher Name. Available from: URL DOI: doi if available.



Chen JJ, Dashtipour K, Portillo I, Tashiro S. Systematic literature review of droxidopa in clinical trials for neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) in parkinsonism. J Pharm Pract. 2016;29(3).


Kaul S, Diamond GA. Good enough: a primer on the analysis and interpretation of noninferiority trials. Ann Intern Med [Internet]. 2006 Jul 4 [cited 2017 Jan 4];145(1):62-9. Available from:


Delgado M, González-Gross M, Cano MD, Gutiérrez A, Castillo MJ. Physical exercise reverses diet-induced increases in LDL-cholesterol and apo B levels in healthy ovo-lactovegetarian subjects. Nut Res. 2000 [cited 2017 Jan 21];20(12):1707-14. In: ScienceDirect [Internet]. Amsterdam: Elsevier B.V. Available from:


  • Enter the title of a book as it appears in the original document, in the original language.

  • If there are no authors, only editors, follow the last named editor with a comma and the word editor or editors.

  • Provide the total number of pages on which the text of the book appears followed with a space and the letter p. Do not count pages for such items as introductory material, appendixes, and indexes unless they are included in the pagination of the text.

  • For e-books place the word Internet in square brackets following the title (and content type, if present).

Book Citation Format

  • Entire Book: Author, AA; Author, BB. Book Title: Subtitle. Edition (if not the first). Volume. Secondary Author, (Illustrator or Editor orTranslator). Place of publication: Publisher; Date of Publication. Pages.

  • Book Chapter: Author of Part, AA; Author of Part, BB. Book Title. Edition (if not the first) Place of publication:Publisher; Date of Publication. Chapter number, Title of chapter; Pages.

  • Edited Work: Editor, AA, Editor, BB., editors. Book Title: Subtitle. Edition (if not the first). Volume, volume title if available. Place of publication:Publisher. Date of publication. Pages.

  • eBook: Author, AA; Author, BB. Book Title [Type of Medium]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [Date of citation]. Page(s). Available from: URL


Entire Book - In Print

Eyre HJ, Lange DP, Morris LB. Informed decisions: the complete book of cancer diagnosis, treatment, and recovery. 2nd ed. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; c2002. 768 p.

Book Chapters - In Print

Hyllegard R, Mood DP, Morrow JR Jr. Interpreting research in sport and exercise science. St. Louis: Mosby; c1996. Chapter 11, Statistics as evidence; p. 299-367.

Entire Book w/Editors - In Print

Friedman EA, L'Esperance FA Jr, editors. Diabetic renal-retinal syndrome: pathogenesis and management update 2002. Boston: Kluwer Academic; c2002. 246 p.


Whipple TJ, Eckhardt RB. The endurance paradox: bone health for the endurance. Walnut Creek (CA): Left Coast Press; c2011 [cited 2017 July 18]. 220 p. In: ebrary [Internet]. Available from:


Website Citation Format

  • Title of website [Type of medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Date of Websie Publication. Title of Page or document; Date of document or page[Date cited]; Available from: URL



AMA: helping doctors help patients [Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association; c1995-2007 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from:

Why we should cite and how to make it easier!

Why is citing important?

Avoids plagiarism

Plagiarism is using another person’s ideas, processes, results, text, or illustration/clinical photographs, etc. without their acknowledgment. There are academic consequences if you use someone else's work, or even small parts of it, without citing the source and giving the author credit for their work.

Shows that you have done your research

Citing your sources shows that you have done your research and are not making things up. It helps illustrate that your research is building off the research that has come before it. When you cite your sources, it helps build your credibility as a scholar.

Citing leads back to the original source

Citations are very helpful in allowing others to find the original source. When citations are incomplete or done incorrectly, it can be difficult or impossible to locate the resource.

Endnote or Zotero

EndNote and Zotero are both bibliographic management applications that helps collect and manage citations for your research or coursework. Use either one to automatically format your reference list and share your citations with other users of the same application. Both work with Microsoft Word to automatically insert and format your citations and reference list according to the citation style you choose.

All MBKU students and faculty can install EndNote for free on their PC or Mac. Downloads are available on  USB drive in the library, or you can contact the library staff for instructions on downloading a copy. The EndNote download includes a plugin for the Pages application. If you have any questions or run into problems with Endnote, please stop by the library and ask the librarians.

Zotero is free to the public. Because you can download the extension in Chrome, you can also use it with Google Docs.

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